Screen printing is also a stencil method of print making in which a design is imposed on a screen of polyester or other fine mesh, with blank areas coated with an impermeable substance, and ink is forced into the mesh openings of the mesh by the fill blade or squeegee and onto the printing surface during the squeegee stroke. It is also known as silkscreen, serigraphy, and serigraph printing. A number of screens can be used to produce a multicoloured image.
Before printing occurs, the frame and screen must undergo the pre-press process, in which an emulsion is 'scooped' across the mesh and the 'exposure unit' burns away the unnecessary emulsion leaving behind a clean area in the mesh with the identical shape as the desired image.
The screen is placed atop a garment. Ink is placed on top of the screen, and a squeegee is used to push the ink through the holes in the mesh. The operator begins with the fill bar at the rear of the screen and behind a reservoir of ink. The operator lifts the screen to prevent contact with the substrate and then using a slight amount of downward force pulls the fill bar to the front of the screen. This effectively fills the mesh openings with ink and moves the ink reservoir to the front of the screen. The operator then uses a squeegee (rubber blade) to move the mesh down to the substrate and pushes the squeegee to the rear of the screen. The ink that is in the mesh opening is pumped or squeezed by capillary action to the substrate in a controlled and prescribed amount, i.e. the wet ink deposit is proportional to the thickness of the mesh and or stencil. As the squeegee moves toward the rear of the screen the tension of the mesh pulls the mesh up away from the substrate (called snap-off) leaving the ink upon the substrate surface.
There are three common types of screenprinting presses. The 'flat-bed', 'cylinder', and the most
Machine embroidery is an embroidery process whereby a sewing machine or
embroidery machine is used to create patterns on textiles. It is used
commercially in product branding, corporate advertising, and uniform adornment.
Hobbyists also machine embroider for personal sewing and craft projects.
There are multiple types of machine embroidery. These include free-motion sewing machine embroidery, this uses a basic zigzag sewing machine. Much commercial embroidery is still done with link stitch embroidery the patterns may be manually or automatically controlled. More modern computerized machine embroidery, uses an embroidery machine or sewing/embroidery machine that is controlled with a computer that will embroider stored patterns, these may have multiple heads and threads.